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  • Research report 132: The social costs of the Covid-19 pandemic

    Published the Wednesday 15 de July de 2020 1:02 am CAM No comment

    Index

    Introduction

      1. 1. When profit is imposed on life [go]
      2. 2. The class struggle defines the way in which the population is treated by Covid-19 contagion [go]
        1. 2.1. The health sector in Mexico facing the pandemic [go]
        2. 2.2. Health workers in Mexico facing the pandemic [go]
        3. 2.3. The cost of getting sick from COVID-19 [go]
        4. 2.4. Covid-19 infections in workers due to the accelerated and disorderly economic opening [go]
        5. 2.5. Maquila workers killed by contracting Covid-19 at their workplaces [go]
    1. 3. The Covid-19 pandemic: ideal mechanism for dissolving social security [go]
    2. 4. The labor consequences of unemployment amid the pandemic [go]
    3. 5. Impact on wages during the pandemic in Mexico [go]
      1. 5.1. The work time required in Mexico during the pandemic [go]
    4. Conclusions [go]
    5. Annexed [go]

     

    Introduction

    How does the bourgeoisie supply the crisis? On one side, by means of the
    forced destruction of a mass of productive forces; for other,
    through the conquest of new markets and the most intense exploitation
    from old markets. How, because? Preparing for larger crises and
    more violent and reducing the means to prevent crises.
    -Karl Marx-[1]

    The consequences observed in the quality of life and work in the working classes worldwide are the consequence of a process that had been brewing with the problems of growth and social development in capitalism for at least the last four decades and, that with the worldwide emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the processes of precarization and impoverishment of workers have accelerated and unveiled. The above, understood from the law of the tendency to lower the rate of profit that was analyzed by Marx and which explains the historical process in which capital seeks to offset the fall in its profits, to continue accumulating capital in greater and greater amounts at any cost, it does not matter who and how many die rejected by the capitalist system.

    Therefore, the social costs for the workers will be the clearest expression of the transfer and socialization of the losses towards the working class that the big capitalists have registered in a tendency way in the average rate of profit and, that with the Covid-19 pandemic have materialized the paralysis of value chains and capitalism worldwide.

    Marx explained very well the way that capitalists find to counteract the tendency drop of the average rate of profit, with the instrumentation of a series of measures (among others) that directly affect the working class, as the decrease in nominal salary, the decrease in social benefits, the eventuality and flexibility in hiring, rising unemployment, Thus, the historical response to the evils afflicting capitalism has represented damage to the working classes..

    On the other hand, from the Multidisciplinary Analysis Center we send greetings to the Organized Women of the Faculty of Economics (I want) that in the last six months they have held a take in which they have fervently defended lawsuits against patriarchal and undemocratic practices within the Faculty of Economics, as in all our university. These demands represent the path towards the realization of the undeniable right to spaces free of gender violence for women within UNAM, since institutional procedures at the university have proven to be inefficient, partial and arbitrary. We express our appreciation, solidarity and willingness to this fair and dignified fight. They are seeds of a rebellion of hope that seeks to make a world come true where many worlds fit without capitalism or patriarchy.

    1. 1. When profit is imposed on life

    Capital with all its unimaginable resources historically illegally accumulated, shows with this trend crisis in which worldwide we are living a war process configured by the needs of capital accumulation. A very clear example is the empire of the United States personified by Donald Trump that daily threatens the whole world with sanctions, taxes, ignorance of peace treaties, withdrawal of support for health programs, intervention, war; Venezuela, Iran, Russia, China, etc., to live, the empire needs conflict, violence, is thinking how to get out of the crisis, look for new markets, new victims. But the same solution to the crisis will contribute to generating a deeper crisis in the future., that is the trend in the way of surviving the capitalist system, increasingly deep and devastating crises.

    In this way, With the current economic crisis in the process of concentration and centralization of capital, this trend continues to be expressed in the course of the destruction and generation of new and greater capital..

    Who wins and who loses with this crisis?

    With the Covid-19 pandemic there has been the destruction and / or paralysis of much of the world economy, but also, has implied the opportunity to buy companies in frank economic insolvency just at the moment in which both the confidence of capitalists, how prices are in the abyss, i.e., we are referring to the real ability of large monopolies to capitalize on the opportunities offered by the free market at the exact point of debacles.

    The large monopolies that have benefited globally from the pandemic are largely related to the sphere of circulation in activities aimed at the distribution and consumption of merchandise trade, from offering platforms to carry out the sale and purchase transactions; as well as everything related to data consumption with entertainment platforms on demand, or with the communication platforms to carry out the "Telework". Below we present a brief account of these companies.

    The richest man in the world, Jeff Bezos -the one who in the face of Trump's constant bravado does not flinch-, is one of the clear winners in the crisis for the Covid-19, your niche is placed with consumers on your website, generating profits around US $ 11,000 per second,[2] i.e., $264 thousand Mexican pesos (at a dollar exchange rate). Which meant that Amazon shares recorded a historic rise.

    Amazon, faces increasing costs to handle increased services, which would not be possible without recently hiring 175 thousand workers under the labor schemes of subcontracting, since this company has long refused to recognize any type of union, arguing that you prefer to negotiate directly with your employees. It is worth mentioning that Amazon is recognized for all the criticism that has been made of it for the treatment of its workers and more during the health emergency by not guaranteeing the safety of all its employees..

    Netflix has positioned itself globally as another of the emporiums it has capitalized, in the entertainment spectrum derived from the confinement of the population, according to Blake Morgan the record of the streaming (or internet broadcasts) it has more and more acceptance among the population, In the last two years, including the health emergency, subscriptions for the services of this platform have increased in 47%, in Italy they increased by 57% and in Spain 34%, but 22 April they registered approximately 16 millions of new consumers.[3]

    Zoom gets more money from consumers who pay for its features Premium, only during the first quarter of 2020, the company raised US $ 122 million, with which he managed to double the amount with respect to the same period last year.[4]

    Slack, for the massive implementation of “telecommuting”. The offer of an instant messaging platform for companies that require the use of internal communications has allowed them to practically double their capital between January and March of this year..[5]

    The nature of the pandemic, It has caused the emergence of businesses and the productive concentration of basic supplies to mitigate the spread of the virus and provide health care., for example, the case of companies engaged in the manufacture of vaccines, medicines and supplies that are vital for health personnel and also for 7 thousand 700 millions of people worldwide,[6] is the case of disinfectants, face masks, gloves, and all the necessary equipment for the management of patients by Covid-19. So we are referring to transnational companies with a turn of pharmaceutical and biotech companies. Clinical trials to develop a specific vaccine against this virus, they see on this horizon a new market niche represents the opportunity to generate profits. It is in this sense that the actions of Inovio Pharmaceuticals, have tended to rise to double, after the company announced that it will start clinical trials of its vaccine project for Covid-19 in humans in the United States in June.[7]

    Service teleconferences, online education and entertainment, since some countries, such as Japan and Italy, schools have closed and some companies, how Google and Twitter, they have asked their employees to work remotely.

    Precisely to account for this drama known as "new normal". The investment firm MKM Partners made a “Stay at home index”, whose purpose is to investigate the trajectory of companies benefiting from the spread of Covid-19. In the midst of uncertainty, The following is a list of business firms that have made significant profits.

    • Inovio:their shares have more than doubled since the pandemic began. Your vaccine, with name INO-4800, It has been developed by manipulating the DNA of the virus, putting aside the customary method that is carried out based on tests with inactivated viruses..
    • Modern: shares rose to 42% when the society reported sending an experimental vaccine to treat Covid-19 to the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases for human clinical trials.
    • Novavax: when he communicated about the progress of his investigations in the exploration of a vaccine, the value of their shares increased suddenly 20%.
    • Regeneron Pharmaceuticals: focused on refining a procedure for the Covid-19, is one of the S index companies&P 500 Wall Street that registered an increase of 10% at the cost of their actions.
    • Top Glove:the world's largest producer of medical gloves.
    • K12: specialist in commercial activities aimed at online education for infants. his actions rose 19%.
    • Zoom Video:provides video conferencing services for companies.
    • Teladoc:its function is to link patients and doctors online. The cost of their actions increased approximately 10% at the start of the pandemic and then reach 50% so far this year.
    • Netflix: although the value of the shares of the company have risen so far this year to a figure close to 15%.
    • YouTube: It has not had a spectacular development in the value of its shares as a result of Covid-19, although it has positioned itself well.

    In its “Stay at home index”, MKM Partners listed Facebook, the video game developer Activision Blizzard, the producer of exercise units Peloton and the food delivery service GrubHub, in addition to Netflix and Amazon.[8]

    On the other hand, in an economic crisis not all capitalists usually win by accumulating wealth. The Bloomberg Billionaires Index declared on its list of 500 richest people on the planet who lost approximately $ 553 billion.[9]

    In the same way, Shareholders in the global oil and gas industries have seen large falls in net capital as oil prices plummeted as a result of significant declines in demand and the dispute over oil production between Saudi Arabia. and Russia.

    In March of this year Forbes published a list of 2 thousand 95 billionaires, 58 less than a year ago, only during the first two weeks of March, when the Covid-19 crisis started hitting value chains and markets in general. Of the mentioned billionaires, the 51% it has seen its concentration of wealth decrease compared to last year and those who occupied the first places remained the same.[10]

    A list of the 25 richest families in the world, and that together they add up to an approximate fortune 1,4 billions of dollars, figure 24% greater than that registered during the 2018. Highlighting within the list the frequency of nine cases in the United States, which from 1929 concentrate much of the billionaire fortune, since the patrimonies backed by decades and, sometimes, for centuries they can deceive the true scope of a family's property[11].

    In total, the richest families on the planet now have a joint heritage that ranges from 250 billion dollars, higher figure than last year. However, not all of these billionaires are wealthier than the year before. The German Quandt family, for example, it fell eight positions and now it is placed in the 16th place of said list, o go Dassault, the Duncans, Lee and Hearst disappeared from the list entirely. Below we present the list of richest families of the world[12]:

    1. Walton (EE UU): $190.500 million. The wealth of entrepreneurs Walmart, the largest retail chain on the planet, It has grown approximately four million dollars every hour that it fails. I.e., per day, the opulence of the Waltonit increases close to 100 millions of dollars.
    2. Mars (EE UU): $126.500 million. The growth of 37,000 Millions of dollars in Mars family wealth over the past year to rank second among the wealthiest families on the planet.
    3. Koch (EE UU): $124.500 million. You have increased your wealth 26,000 million since 2018.
    4. Al Saud (Saudi Arabia): $100.000 million. Monarchy symbol for more than 87 years, his colossal wealth is due to the extraordinary oil reserves located in his country.
    5. Wertheimer (France): $57.600 million. The blood relatives Alain and Gerard Wertheimer are the entrepreneurs of Coco Chanel, It is estimated that in the last year alone they have earned more than 11,000 millions of dollars.
    6. Hermes (France): $53.100 million
    7. Van Damme, The Spoelberch, De Mevius (Belgium): $52.900 million
    8. Boehringer, From Baumbach (Germany): $51.900 million
    9. Ambani(India): $50.400 million
    10. Cargill, MacMillan(EE UU): $42.900 million
    11. Thomson (Canada): $39.100 million
    12. Kwok (Hong Kong): $38.000 million
    13. Chearavanont (Thailand): $37.900 million

    But also if we see the 2000 richest people in the world concentrate more wealth than half of humanity. "Less than 1% of the world's richest have more than 60% of the planet's population ”.[13] This is revealed by a recent report by the non-profit organization Oxfam, dedicated to fighting poverty on the planet, and published on the eve of the World Economic Forum in Davos Switzerland.

    The figures collected by Oxfam based on data collected by Forbes magazine and the Crédit Suisse Bank in the 2019, stated that the 2 thousand 153 richest billionaires they have more capital than they can accumulate 4 thousand 600 millions of the poorest people of the planet.

    The number of billionaires on the planet has practically doubled in the last ten years. In Latin America it is where this situation has been most perceived because this elite went from 27 to 104 since the year 2000, and in contrast extreme poverty that also increased. In 2019, 66 millions of people lived in extreme poverty, i.e., a 10.7% according to estimates by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

    Oxfam research exposes that governments employ tax policies that place considerably meager taxes on wealthier individuals and companies, therefore, its income collection base is insufficient to support the fight against poverty and inequality.[14]

    In contradiction, by analyzing the current situation of poverty that the world is suffering with the Covid-19 pandemic and the economic crisis, we see that in the face of profound deprivation of well-being, and the lack of access to basic capacities to function in capitalist society, coupled with a historical fall in income and decent employment to face needs such as education, health, feeding, the House, safety, basic rights that could allow maintaining a basic quality of life.

    Poverty and hunger are present with crises for the vast majority of the world's population, This has been warned by the UN, according to José Esquinas, Doctor in Genetics from the University of California, “the number of hungry people in the world is 821 million”, and the population that is dying annually of hunger and malnutrition amounts to 17 millions of people, in other words, according to these data approximately 46 thousand people die every day from hunger. Estimates of deaths during the Second World War range from 50 to 70 million, during the 6 years the war lasted, 17 million multiplied by 6 years which is what we said the war lasted we would have 102 millions starved to death. We are seeing a real world war against the poor. Paradoxically they are occurring 60% more than essential food products to feed the world population. "The problem is not lack of food, since there are many more than we need to feed ourselves. They are in the international market, but they don't reach the mouth or the table of those who are hungry. The problem is access to food ", also noted that it is "A problem that could be aggravated by the coronavirus pandemic", the number of hungry people in the world is forecast to double in the coming years, consequence of the limitation of movements and the closing of commercial borders due to complications that the free market is already experiencing, like the Covid-19 pandemic. He also indicated that “hunger is a breeding ground in which the great diseases of humanity grow”. And that “We are spending on weapons 4.000 million dollars a day, money that would allow those who starve every day to be fed, 40.000 people, during more than 120 years.[15]

    To this should be added what the Executive Director of the UN World Food Program pointed out, David Beasley, who estimates the following: "Humanity may face a famine of “biblical magnitudes” already in several months if you don't start acting directly.[16]

    In the same sense, the UN World Food Program (PMA). He indicated that the number of people suffering from extreme food insecurity could reach 265 millions towards the last stage of the year 2020, [17] reason why it is considered that people in this condition enter the Phase 3 or worse on the scale of the Integrated Classification of Food Security Phases, IPC / CH, i.e., 130 millions more people with respect to 135 million people during the 2019, and that they were the result of the economic impact (24 millions of people), climate change (34 millions of people), due to socio-political conflicts (77 millions of people) and by the pandemic produced by the Covid-19. Yemen stands out among the ten most affected countries, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Afghanistan, Venezuela, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Syria, Sudan, Nigeria and Haiti.

    A grim situation is the one Spain has faced where people ask for food, poverty begins to wreak havoc among the population and the impossibility of getting out of this condition. At the Santander City Council, has risen up to 60% demand for help in the form of food.

    We confirm that what Raúl Zibechi said in April of this year is true: "When the coronavirus pandemic enters the popular neighborhoods of large Latin American cities, for the first time you will be entering an unknown world of deep poverty, chronic hunger, infra-dwellings without water and structural unemployment, in sectors already affected by dengue and tuberculosis. It can have terrible effects ”[18].

    The current situation facing the population in Latin America is terrible. The data and figures in relation to the number of infected and dead have been unreliable. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends eight hospital beds for every thousand inhabitants, in Brazil it is 2.2 Beds, in Mexico are 75 thousand beds in the public health sector, which is integrated by the IMSS with 1 thousand 876 beds and 2 thousand 565 respiratory support ventilators; the ISSSTE with 551 beds and 3 thousand 64 fans; Pemex, with 102 beds and 103 fans; and Health has 218 beds and 443 fans,[19] for a total population of 127 million 792 thousand 286 people according to CONAPO.[20] Also, large urban areas, and more rural, they lack water and basic services to face the pandemic, for example, In janeiro river, Iztapalapa in Mexico, etc.

    In some countries such as Paraguay, the residents themselves installed dozens of popular pots with food for the population, giving priority to children and the elderly., since the State took almost three weeks to send food, always insufficient, since families are unable to continue working in many cases in the informal economy.[21]

    1. 2. The class struggle defines the way in which the population is treated by Covid-19 contagion

    For the ILO, various countries in the world are showing a social protection system with many deficiencies to intervene in the health crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic and try to relatively recover from it.[22]

    For that reason, For the ILO, a public policy is needed that from governments aspires to more adequately address the pandemic caused by Covid-19 and its aftermath.; assuming strengthening social protection systems. This is not possible if the weight of the entire informal economy is not reversed over the formal economy., and to strengthen health institutions, one would be talking about at least allocating the 6% of GDP.

    1. 2.1. The health sector in Mexico facing the pandemic

    Theoretically and historically it has been thought that the role of social security is nodal as an instrument for the State and the capitalist class, to try to keep the workforce in adequate conditions and thus guarantee the exploitation and extraction of surplus value. However, during the phase of neoliberalism, it has been dismantled and has cast aside this consideration by privatizing and implementing a vision in which the health economy should operate from the totally open market, with which the working class would have more obstacles to access and exercise social security.

    In Mexico, it is not possible to return to state-driven development as neoliberalism is AMLO's religion, but also because in the framework of current capitalism, it is very complicated for a country like Mexico, with that relationship with large transnational firms and with the T-MEC, retrace the path to return to a welfare state.

    The percentage representation of Public Expenditure allocated to the Health sector with respect to GDP, reflects a stagnation during the last decade when an accumulated average of 2.71%, although during the last three years said average fell to 2.5% of GDP.[23]

    We can see that the development of the health sector is very limited and even lagged by the contention in the distribution of state resources and that it has been confirmed with the health emergency by the Covid-19. By relating it to the behavior of the total population in Mexico in the last ten years, we cannot lose sight that there is an increase of 12 million 836 thousand people, to get on the 2020 to 127 million 792 thousand 286 people according to CONAPO,[24] who mentions in turn, that the employed population at risk in the formal economy is 23 million 987 thousand 092 workers, while in the informal economy they are 30 million 949 thousand 627 workers. In the same way, of the total population are 52 million 425 thousand 887 people who are in a situation of poverty considering some estimates up to 2019, with the 82.24% in moderate poverty and 17.76% in extreme poverty, the correlation of the type of poverty suffered by the population in Mexico will change significantly both due to the Covid-19 pandemic but above all due to the entire slowdown in the world economy that had been observed since at least last year.

    1. 2.2. Health workers in Mexico facing the pandemic

    Repeated complaints about the lack of security conditions to work and consequently not to be exposed to losing their lives, as it has happened until today, It is only a sample of a State like the Mexican that privileges the megaprojects over the lives of doctors. To give an example, The public expenditure destined to the health sector to face the sanitary emergency caused by Covid-19 does not compare at all with the committed resources for the development of the Maya Train project.. The incentive as a prize that the government has dedicated to all health workers is a single bonus equivalent to 20% monthly salary.

    The high risk due to the lack of necessary minimum quality inputs to carry out work safely and efficiently in the health sector. For any human being, it represents a life or death situation since their life and that of others are at stake.

    And it is that in recent months it has become quite common and daily to know about the infection by Covid-19 of medical personnel, only in Jalisco, until mid-May they were approximately 65 doctors and nurses.[25] At CDMX, the days 14 and 15 May workers belonging to the IMSS National Medical Center La Raza took to the streets to demand equipment and supplies for protection and training for the safe management of patients by Covid-19. In the same way, At the CMN Siglo XXI Specialty Hospital, employees met inside the building and made their demands, such as the need to have a refrigerator trailer for the deposit of the corpses, since the area destined for that purpose was completely insufficient; meanwhile at La Raza Hospital, the doctors showed that the government promoted republican austerity when acquiring supplies and protective equipment, same that they are of terrible quality, in addition to being very limited resources, because protection packages lack such basic issues to preserve health and life as access to N95 mouthguards.[26]

    For this reason, doctors are aware that the work they do is considered high risk., and in that sense they demand the payment of the high risk bonus for the health emergency and the improvement of working conditions, like basification and salary increase.

    However, the real response capacity of the national health care network, today converted against the increase in demand for the health emergency, leaves clear evidence of devastation and destruction for long 36 years of neoliberalism and counting, which has been combined with the current government's limitations on public spending to articulate current federal public policy.

    Due to the situation in the health sector, it is essential to mention in the labor issue the ineffectiveness of the 4t government, by violating labor rights such as not having the safety and hygiene conditions in the workplace and preventive measures that allow all health personnel to face the risk of contracting Covid-19.

    A clear example of the absence of the exercise of labor rights is the demand for psychological support that, in the face of possible contagions and increasing workplace harassment, stressful job, therefore, such support cannot be postponed as established in Clause 73 of the CCT-IMSS: promotion of health and improvement of quality of life. In addition to, on the other hand, employers comply with safety and hygiene measures in workplaces that guarantee health and life of workers, preventing work risks, accidents and illnesses to which they are occupationally exposed.

    Of course, it is the obligation of health professionals to observe the preventive safety and hygiene measures established by official regulations and standards.. But, the notion of occupational disease is in reference to any pathological state derived from the continued action of a cause that has its origin or reason at work and caused by viruses, as established by the Federal Labor Law (LFT) in your articles 473, 475 to y 513. Therefore, the work centers must comply with the appropriate conditions for the activities arranged: bathrooms, dressing rooms, store of tools, clothes, furniture, uniforms, shoe covers mouths, protective equipment, disinfectants, antibacterial gel and soap.

    Compliance with the previous articles of the Federal Labor Law corresponds to the respective Safety and Hygiene commissions. Although work risks are the employer's obligations - in this case the State -: medical care, compensation and full salary. They also have an obligation to provide training and education following the LFT article. 153 A and C.

    On the other hand, the National Commission of Human Rights, in Labor human rights (2017), promotes the culture of the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases within the framework of the article 123 constitutional (fraction XV); articles 132, 473, 475 to y 513 of the LFT; Federal Security Regulation, Hygiene and Work Environment; Convention 155-ILO, as well as the respective General Conditions of Work and Collective Contracts.

    In the same sense, the Document of health professionals of the Movement 22 June and the National Assembly of Nurses of Mexico, among others, they demand that, derived from the agreement that establishes criteria in the field of human resource management to contain the spread of Covid-19 in government agencies and entities (DOF 23/3/20) a dialogue table is installed so that they have material resources in sufficient quantities; immediate delivery of medications to satisfy the 100 percent treatments; newly created squares of branch foot; immediate superior codes with definitive base appointment based on the articles 6 and 15 of the Federal Law of Workers at the Service of the State; increase in the number of places for resident doctors; additional rights to work in harmful-dangerous areas incorporating precarious workers and undergraduate internal doctors, as well as interns; revision of tabulations of positions and salaries of the National System as a whole (public, private and social) guaranteeing the right to the ranks.

    They also demand to agree on mechanisms for the regulation of doctor's offices adjacent to pharmacies and the dignity of wages of the doctors who serve them.; consolidate definitive appointments for regularized and formalized professionals from 2007 (Popular insurance), in addition to workers who sign fixed-term contracts, those of job stability and Health Galenos of the CDMX ".[27]

    If we point out the above, we find that in the current Federal Labor Law (LFT) in the TITLE SECOND CHAPTER III. In relation to the suspension of the effects of labor relations, in your article 42. They are causes of temporary suspension of the obligations to provide the service and pay the salary., without responsibility for the worker and the employer (See Annex A).

    On the other hand, the so-called "Modern" State demands the sacrifice of the working population from a discourse for the sake of progress and development of the whole society, However, the voice of health workers is heard by demanding decent working conditions, while the government tries to qualify and reduce the social anger to a paltry bond of the 20% and life insurance for his work.

    The Bonus of 20 % equivalent to monthly salary, which is supposed to be delivered to workers in the health sector including the IMSS. Which means in the facts that said bonus is conditioned first to the time restriction, i.e., would only be valid from 23 March to the date when the end of the health emergency is declared by Covid-19 when there will still be no vaccine or cure for this disease.. Which also supposes a position of the government that estimates that in the future there would be no outbreaks., referrals, replicas or new situations of this pandemic, so it is a merely transitory measure.

    At the same time, This monthly bonus will be delivered only to workers who work in one of the 184 IMSS medical units and that maintain contact with Covid-19 patients. Like doctors, nurses, stretcher-bearers and more employees in the Covid-19 area. Obviously, health sector personnel would not enter this condition to receive the bonus, in the same way the cleaning workers who maintain hiring schemes under the figure of subcontracting.[28]

    To understand the size of the government's recognition of a sector of workers in the health sector. On average a Family Physician at the IMSS in the 2020 have a fixed monthly base salary[29] of $10,459.20, the monthly bonus would be 2,091.84; a doctor for the transfer of an emergency patient, fixed monthly base salary $10,459.20, the monthly bonus would be $2,091.84; a General Nurse, fixed monthly base salary $ 6,010.54, the monthly bonus would be $1,202.10; Nurse / Floor Manager, fixed monthly base salary $8,340.30, with a monthly bonus of $1,668.06 and, a Stretcher of Hospital Units, fixed monthly base salary $ 4,681.44, the monthly bonus would be $936.28.[30] Compared to multiple increases in salary and social benefits provided to government armed forces personnel, it is insulting. In November 2019, AMLO announced an increase in the Armed Forces salary above inflation for the 2020.

    "About the seafarers' wages, the soldiers, it's well earned. I.e., they deserve an increase because they have behaved very well, especially now that they have as homework, among others, but the main task of guaranteeing public safety ”[31]

    The fight for life has involved many disadvantages for health sector workers that are an unequivocal consequence of the way the labor market is structured under the shelter of capitalism, we are not only witnessing the apotheosis of the health system and rather it is in ruins, i.e., the way in which the State has placed workers in general in all the activities of the economy in order to survive. The total number of infections by Covid-19 worldwide at 2 June is from 450 thousand health workers according to an estimate made by the International Council of Nurses,[32] in that same sense they disclose the figure of approximately 600 nurses worldwide who have died of the coronavirus, highlighting that during the month of May the amount doubled.[33]

    In Mexico, the total contagion of workers in the health sector at 28 June amounted to 46 thousand 013 cases[34] and, that regarding 3 June with a figure of 20 thousand 270 cases[35] represented an increase in 127% in just 25 days; it is necessary to mention the cases of contagion registered on 3 of June, which are disaggregated as follows: 8 thousand 513 nurses and nurses to represent the 42%; after 6 thousand 486 doctors cases, to be the 32% and, other health professionals with 4 thousand 662 cases to mean the 23%. Most of these cases come from the IMSS, of the Ministry of Health and ISSSTE. Also, register at 2 of June 270 deaths, of which 105 are from the Ministry of Health, 96 of the IMSS and 48 of the ISSSTE[36].

    1. 2.3. The cost of getting sick from COVID-19

    It is true that the pandemic by Covid-19 in the contagion process does not distinguish social classes. However, the way in which the bourgeoisie and the working class make use of their social and material conditions is even defining who could survive or die.

    From the 27 February - the day the first Covid-19 case was registered in Mexico- to the 11 of July, the official number of infections is 289 thousand 174 cases[37] and this will certainly continue to grow in the coming days with the decisions made by the AMLO government to condition life to a new normality that, However, maintains the same capitalist normality: Earnings above life itself. And is that, in recent days, activities like mining, the construction, the automotive and beer sectors were classified as essential activities by the current administration. However, This new normality that will be imposed will not really ensure the necessary and sufficient health conditions for the most marginalized and beaten sector of the country, we mean the working class.

    Those who are more likely to get the new virus are, in the end, who will not be able to pay for the services required for effective care that ensures life saving and a good recovery. Even the costs for tests to detect the virus are inherent, elevated. On average, the prices of these tests on private sites range from $3,100. In some places like Salud Digna, the tests have a cost of $1,300 and in counterpart, in Médica Sur it may cost the basic study of the Covid-19 the $7,299.00, in this sense, according to the New York Times "Only 0,4 people out of a thousand in Mexico are tested for the virus, far from the lowest ratio among the dozens of nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), they average a 23 tests for every thousand people ”.[38] For people who work and do not have any type of insurance, This treatment is simply priceless because according to the Mexican Association of Insurance Institutions (FRIENDS) the approximate cost per patient admitted to a private hospital is $410,000[39]. Until now, most major expense insurance covers Covid-19 illness with only 1 –Of which name is not specified- the one that has not yet included it for declaring a pandemic. In total, AMIS records claims for 42 million pesos to 19 insurers, 69% those who use their insurance are men and 31% women, both groups between 30 to 59 years.

    If we transport this to reality in the class struggle where reality is self-explanatory, we can see that there are more people who do not have any type of insurance and so perhaps we can understand the problem that the pandemic really makes evident. The Covid-19 is already a very big problem, but it is aggravated by the inequality in the material conditions that deprive the social classes to face it., "According to INEGI figures, just between 5 and 10% of the population has enough money to face a serious illness or accident ".[40] On the other hand, official data on infected people and deaths, in recent days they have become the center of attention after the New York Times claimed that the figures in Mexico were made up by the current administration, the number of deaths in CDMX could be more than three times the official figure.

    "Doctors from overwhelmed Mexico City hospitals say the reality of the epidemic is being hidden from the country. In some hospitals patients lie on the floor, lying on mattresses. There are older people leaning on metal chairs because there are not enough beds, while other patients are rejected and sent to find space in less prepared hospitals. Many die in that search, said several doctors ".[41]

    Elements of the independent organization are added to this revelation of data by the New York Times. Fifth Element, who in a study mentions that the Mexican emergency service 911 during the first two months of the development of the pandemic by Covid-19 it received in Mexico City 1,179 reports of deaths possibly due to SARS-COV2, which means a number 3 times greater than 329 cases recognized by the Ministry of Health. In this sense, the Command Center, Control, Calculation, Communications and Citizen Contact (C5) assured that the calls were completely true, because they went to the homes where emergency supports were requested, confirming the situation.[42] So the discrepancy in figures have even been accepted by the Undersecretary of Health Hugo López Gatell “We have explained that the corresponding samples could be taken even after death., but this rarely happens, so we have people who lose their lives and have had the suggestive clinical conditions of Covid-19 but they are not registered as such because there is no laboratory demonstration.”,[43] reason why corrections have been presented in the figures on deaths to days and months past.

    Also, according to an investigation carried out by Mario Romero Zavala and Laurianne Despeghel and in which the excess mortality observed during the pandemic is studied, which refers to a process of calculations and comparison of the deaths recorded so far in the contingency with the value expected based on past trends, The construction of the figures considers deaths from Covid-19 and deaths from different causes that could not be attended due to saturation in the health system or that simply did not go to receive medical attention, so: “As of the close of March 2020, it is observed how the trend of the year of 2020 moves away from the years 2016 to 2018 at a rate that accelerates in April and May. There is a differential of around 10,000 deaths at the end of May, based on the estimate for the 10 last days of the month. "[44] In summary, to the 11 July Mexico registered 34 thousand 730 deceased[45], to place fifth worldwide, beating France with 29 thousand 979 deceased, to Spain with 28 thousand 401 cases, to India with 21 thousand 654 cases, to Iran with 12 thousand 447 cases, to Peru with 11 thousand 314 cases, to Russia with 11 thousand 17 cases, to Belgium with 9 thousand 781 cases, to Germany with 9 thousand 125 cases[46], reason why it takes special interest to observe the case fatality rate in Mexico which is 10.9%.

    The analysis does not manage to trace the same situation in the rest of the country, but it can be intuited that the government has followed the same line in the rest of the entities., just like in Baja California, Morena Governor Jaime Bonilla spun the following warning-signaling: "All officers of the Civil Registry of Baja California are instructed that derived from the health contingency by Covid-19, they should refrain from providing any information ”.[47] A few days after the return to normal, it is not clear how many people are infected and how many have died in the country due to the virus. Again the economic situation prevails over health, There are no safe conditions for the lower classes, but there are conditions of economic stability for large corporations.. Who daily must go out to work, even with all security and prevention measures, they will be accepting the virus because they cannot have any other option than getting sick. In this country the cost of getting sick has a different semantics, as if it were an object, when we go out to work we will be buying the virus that we will not be able to pay. It will not be something that you can decide not to acquire.

    In Mexico, the trend regarding inaccessibility to health institutions is an expression of continuity in the policy of precariousness of the working class, in the last 15 years workers without access to health institutions in Mexico have registered an increase in 24.60%. I.e., In Mexico for the 2005 had 27 million 419 thousand 587 workers without access to health institutions, for the first quarter of 2020 the figure registered an increase to 34 million 167 thousand 349 workers.

     

    1. 2.4. The contagions in the workers before the accelerated and disorderly economic opening

    With the NAFTA update now T-MEC, result of the new pact between Mexico, United States and Canada, we note that in the chapter 23 which refers to the labor part. Allusion is made to the guarantees that must be promoted in the labor market of the three countries to configure the new development of work. However, in the face of paralysis in global value chains, have been reduced to a dead letter, let's see the following articles:

    Art. 23.6. Forced labor. "The Parties recognize the objective of eliminating all forms of forced or compulsory labor, including forced or compulsory child labor. Therefore, each Party shall prohibit, through measures that it considers appropriate, the importation of merchandise into its territory from other sources produced in whole or in part by forced or compulsory labor, including forced or compulsory child labor ”.

    Art. 23.7. Violence against workers. "The Parties recognize that workers and unions must be able to exercise the rights established in Article 23.3 (Labor rights) in a climate that is free from violence, threats and intimidation, and the imperative of governments to effectively address incidents of violence, threats and intimidation against workers. Therefore, No Party shall fail to address cases of violence or threats of violence against workers., directly related to the exercise or attempt to exercise the rights established in the Article 23.3 (Labor rights), through a sustained or recurring course of action or inaction in a manner that affects trade or investment between the Parties ”[48].

    The light and heavy vehicle production plants distributed throughout the country pressed together with governors and politicians of the current government for the so-called revival of the economy and reopening of its operations after two or more months of paralysis in the value production chain due to the health crisis and the unjustifiable insistence of both the United States government and that of Mexico.

    The Federal Government concluded on Monday 1 June the National Day of Healthy Distance due to the pandemic due to the Covid-19 outbreak, although from the 13 May it was decided to raise the industrial branches of construction as essential, the automotive and mining industries to mark in advance the intended return to activity for the economic sectors, including assembly or supplier companies in the automotive industry. This revival of industries defined from now on as "new essentials" - construction, mining and transportation equipment manufacturing- They start their activities at the peak of the Coronavirus pandemic and while the country remains on high alert due to the high risk of infection and the exponential increase in infections observed during the last week of May and the first week of June.

    Facing the reopening, automotive companies have modified the organization of work to ensure safety and hygiene in their operations, which consist of only taking body temperature measurements of the workers on the buses during the journeys to and from the factory., wear a mask, a little antibacterial gel, handwashing, and try to keep the healthy distance as much as possible, This super basic scheme of health security for employees represents an approximate cost to the company of 80 pesos per worker. The same is mitigated when workers are asked to reinitiate an increase in the productivity of the 15%, represents 112 thousand 900 pesos per employee every day and, clear the promise of not catching on the job to avoid losing your job.

    Federal authorities marked that, Between the days 18 and the 31 of May, the automotive companies had to prepare with the elaboration of sanitary protocols, training of personnel for safety at work, readjustment of spaces (put only one worker to check the passage of workers with mouth covers and measure the temperature) and production processes, implementation of income filters and sanitation of the workplace (water with a little soap and / or chlorine). In no case was it established by the federal government to make any test to avoid costs to those already punished entrepreneurs for low sales and for the covid-19.[49]

    The automotive industry began its return to economic activity gradually, from the 18 May with the adaptation of its operations or rather with the simulation of protocols that are not at all close to the rules of scientific approval, under guidelines and sanitary measures by the authority of the Ministry of Health, of the Secretary of Labor and the President.

    Several automakers and automotive component manufacturers restarted with phased schedule schemes, with the clear intention of making work shifts more efficient and productive, canceling any possibility of pores in production or downtime.

    Most of the complex production of light vehicles, auto engines, of heavy vehicles and automotive parts that are distributed in 15 entities in the country reactivated their operations, after two months or more of unemployment due to the health crisis and amid doubts about the high number of infections and the number of deaths from Covid-19; by the way, only in the Metropolitan Zone of the Valley of Mexico of the 1 April to 4 According to local government data, a total of 8 thousand 526 deaths recorded by Covid-19 in hospitals, number that collides with the number reported by the Federal Government which is 4 thousand 355 dead, i.e., there is a difference from 95%, What accounts for this difference? concealment, error or omission, this without counting the number of deaths in homes.

    1. 2.5. Maquila workers killed by contracting Covid-19 at their workplaces

    For capital, workers are perfectly expendable in order to keep value chains burning, As is the case of the maquilas in Mexico, how many workers have died from this situation??

    The Covid pandemic contingency- 19 that has spread around the world has had fatal consequences for many people. The danger of an abrupt end is exacerbated by not taking adequate measures to face this pandemic. This has been the end of many people who due to financial reasons have been unable to stop working, It has also been the destination of people whose working conditions do not respond to adequate measures., this was the case for many people who worked in the maquiladora sector in Mexico.

    Last May, workers of maquilas of Ciudad Juárez in Chihuahua demonstrated before the arbitrariness that they had suffered since the health contingency began by the Covid-19, pointed out that many people had been dismissed without the corresponding payment, In addition, they said that, despite the need to suspend work in workplaces due to infections, forced them to work even when sick. Among the most serious events they denounced, was the death of workers by Covid-19, same disease that they had contracted in the workplace, where despite these facts there were no adequate sanitation measures. As they commented at the time, many other maquilas resumed activities on 18 May illegally, without caring in the least about the life and health of the workers' personnel.

    According to statements by the Secretary of Health of the state of Chihuahua, through the spokesman Arturo Valenzuela Zorrilla he had only recognized 17 Deaths of personnel who worked in the maquila until May, whose causes attributed to the maquila -mainly automotive, aeronautics and military- pretended to suspend operations for only three or four days, but she remained active and offered a bonus of 500 a thousand pesos a week to work during quarantine;[50] Given this, the protesters declared that there were more than 104 documented deaths[51] in Ciudad Juárez and that even the figure could rise to more than 200.[52] The companies where there is a record of worker deaths by Covid-19 are: Lear, Mahle, Electrocomponentes de México, Electrolux, Hubbell, Commscope, Toro Company, Ethicon, Cordis, Syncreon, Flex, Key Tronic, Optron, TPI, Foxconn, Columbasasí, Regal y Honeywell.

    The labor lawyer Susana Prieto Terrazas mentioned that in three plants of Lear (Bravo River; San Lorenzo, Johnson y Johnson, Aptiv y Eagle Ottawa) there were more than 30 deceased workers, also said that in the maquiladora of the Regal company I already had 10 victims,[53] Syncreon with 6 deceased, 7 victims in Electrolux, 10 in Electrocomponentes de México, 9 in Foxconn Santa Teresa, 6 in Foxconn The towers, two or more at Toro Company, and one in Columbus.[54] Another statement by the lawyer was that almost 95% of the maquila in Ciudad Juárez was working, and that the companies that stopped did so due to the lack of export supplies, also said that 85% of deaths from the virus in the Ciudad Juárez area, Tijuana, Baja California and Culiacán Sinaloa, they were of workers - the same number that it supports through the public and legal complaints of the relatives of the fatal victims -.

    On the other hand, in the energy branch PEMEX beats 400 deaths from this disease[55]. The company detailed that 109 people were retired, 93 relatives of employees and 102 workers more 3 external[56]. PEMEX affirms that the prevention proposal has managed to contain the advance of the virus, however, Oil rig workers have stated that they do not work with the necessary inputs, medical staff in some areas try to pass off the discomforts of a common flu to avoid alarm among employees. Employee testimony further clarifies the situation, because "he has witnessed the mismanagement of the situation. He claims that not even the personal protection equipment (EPP) they are being given, so they have to buy it themselves. In your case you spend a thousand pesos a month, it requires a more specialized team. Others with simpler tasks pay, on average, 500 pesos”.[57] While since April, Family members denounced from the social networks the company's wrongdoing towards the workers, many of whom never returned ashore to see their families.

    The CDMX has not been the exception in terms of deaths caused by the null liability by companies, one of the most vulnerable groups has been that of the city's cleaning sector. Union leaders have pointed around 94 deaths from symptoms associated with Covid-19, the conditions are identical; lack of prevention by employers, almost no distribution of protection and hygiene supplies and poor working conditions. Hugo Alonso Ortiz, section secretary general 1, Transport and Clean, of the Single Union of Workers of the Government of Mexico City highlights that “of 20 days to date the deaths have worsened and that the Mayor's Office of Iztapalapa is the district where more cases have been presented, with 26 deaths ”[58], at the Venustiano Carranza Mayor's Office at least 12 Deaths and union workers have expressed that the little equipment received is inappropriate and insufficient, in addition to the risks that they have had to face due to the poor division of waste by people, since they have had to deal with waste from people with Covid-19 that are not kept in special bags that let them know what type of waste they are handling.

    Unfortunately, these cases will not be the only ones, in fact, It seems that they will be increasing now that, little by little, one returns to normal activities. And likewise, There are already other cases of violation of labor rights and corporate irresponsibility towards workers., such as the case of Ómnibus de México, General Motors, ISSSTE, TelVista, among many others that have received complaints from their employees.[59]

    1. 3. The Covid-19 pandemic: the ideal mechanism for dissolving social security

    With the presence of the Covid-19, the intention by the States and the capitalists to accelerate the cancellation of the social coverage that millions of workers still lived worldwide has been revealed.. Many states claim that maintaining social benefits would jeopardize economic recovery plans, this vision could pay with the increase not only of poverty but also of extreme poverty for millions of people. According to the ILO, approximately four billion people lack social security, i.e., the 55% of the world population and, of workers who are unemployed only the 20% would have the possibility of exercising the right to some benefit. The same ILO considers that the health crisis caused by Covid-19 makes evident the deficit that prevails with all those health-related benefits to face the pandemic, it is so that in this situation lacking for the workers it means to pay in their own way for what they have to attend work. States should be acting with measures that are not only palliative and that imply a greater allocation of state resources to the health sector, asserting human rights for guaranteed access to health, to social security and consequently to life itself.[60]

    The working class worldwide today is experiencing profound flexibility in the labor markets, that has been expressed with worse working conditions, further dislocating the ways of contracting, the duration of working hours, transferring the work to the workers' homes, with which the capitalists would be reducing the cost and social benefits and the nominal and real wages, further lowering the price of labor power. The latter sets the stage for an exponential drop in worldwide income of 2 thousand 650 million workers according to the World Bank and the ILO itself.[61]

    The case of the United States of America. We cannot ignore, what was during 1935 that in the US as a consequence of the great depression of 1929 a bill was created on the social security system, in this way the State intervened in the economy trying to solve the shortcomings of capitalist companies, so the pension system and everything that came with the American workers retirement plan. However, eighty-five years later the social security system is totally cracked and falling apart due to the fluctuations in the world market and the demands of the financial system, so the US government does not have the possibilities to significantly improve the social benefits system.

    For workers in the United States and in the so-called developed countries, the Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing crisis are marking the end of the so-called “first world of work”, reason why the disappearance of the great Labor conquests is being deepened.

    If we consider the different types of hiring and the types of workers that currently make up the economically active population of the United States. We can say that in the short term they would be affected frontally in their social benefits by 52.5% of the field workers, of the city and those located in the science sector, With which it would be beginning a process of pressure towards other parts of the world to generalize a new stage of precariousness in the working conditions of all workers in all sectors.. Then, a box for him 2020 where you can see the level of precariousness at which the working class is located in the US and Mexico.

    The case of Mexico. What Mexican families have had to do is integrate, at least, three members to the labor market, under subcontracting conditions and without benefits, of luck What, for the first quarter of 2020, were already 13 million 93 thousand 740 paid and subordinate workers without benefits.

    A misconception that has emerged around flexibilization is that it only operates in formal employment. This is relative, since the work of the informal sector has been characterized by the lack of a contract, social security, of benefits, labor rights, and part-time work. Although, it is true that the relaxation of informal work is not a direct cause of the labor reform approved in Mexico by the Congress of the Union in the 2012 during the government of the PAN president Felipe Calderón Hinojosa, it did impact the growth of this sector, as a result of the instability generated by the reform by making work precarious, people were forced to seek other means of subsistence, finding work in this sector that allows them to correct their income. I.e., the labor reform matched the precariousness of informal sector workers to workers who work formally.

    Workers who have had to adapt to working conditions at a complete legal and organizational disadvantage are on the rise, This is the particular case of subordinated and remunerated workers without a written contract in Mexico and who account for the flexibilization and subcontracting process prevailing in the neoliberal phase., in the 2005 they were 13 million 435 thousand 972 employees, for the first quarter of 2020 increased to 17 million 186 thousand 627 workers, reason why labor instability has continued to advance.

    In the same way, The great benefits of subcontracting for employers is the nullification of the labor rights explained in the contracting: continuity of employment, antiquity, scale, job security, etc. On the other hand and not less important is the almost elimination of the right to strike. In the following graph about subordinate and paid workers who work without having a written contract, we can verify the systematic increase in employees who work without signing a contract, which means a total disadvantage of the worker compared to the employer.

     

    1. 4. The labor consequences of unemployment amid the pandemic

    The social and labor consequences of rising global unemployment and loss of jobs due to the Covid-19 pandemic, they are a clear sign of a war that has rarely been seen against the workers of the world.

    According to the World Bank and the ILO itself, there is a worldwide loss of 350 million jobs for him 2020, which will irreparably have the following effects: i) in forms of recruitment worldwide, practically leaving informality 2 thousand 150 millions of workers, which means practically a third of the world population, something like the 55% of world population that is able to work, triggering on the one hand, a greater number of labor conflicts in the world and, on the other hand, a greater pressure towards the union leaderships to yield to the needs of the capitalists for implementing a series of measures that allow increasing the levels of exploitation and precariousness of the workers, seeking to counteract the tendency drop in the average rate of profit; ii) With a reduction in formal hiring and with an increase in labor informality, by impacting the forms of contracting with the aim of reducing social benefits - governments and political parties would be putting pressure on unions to achieve this goal–; iii) From the pandemic by Covid-19, the creation and promotion of the so-called "staggered hiring with health objectives", phrase used by presidents Donald Trump, Jair Bolsonaro and, López Obrador; y iv) The fragmentation of the forms of organization and labor resistance –end by disappearing the big unions–.

    In the case of Mexico, regarding the unemployment rate of the INEGI. The figures published on this indicator do not appear to be consistent enough, especially against the reality that is being lived in the Mexican job market in the face of the health emergency due to Covid-19. For the fourth quarter of 2019 the unemployed population was 1 million 942 thousand 71 unemployed workers, However, for the first quarter of 2020 (January March) the figure went to 1 million 976 thousand 60 unemployed workers, i.e., the national difference was an increase of 33 thousand 989 unemployed, which does not fit with reality, especially due to the important changes that are taking place in the Mexican labor market derived from the pandemic.

    When analyzing the unoccupied population -but who have the availability to be employed and look for work, although not actively-, during the period in which the Covid-19 pandemic occurred, reflects that for the month of March 2020 they had already 5 million 900 thousand workers who passed during the month of April to 20 millions of people[62], i.e., a 25% more compared to the previous month and which talks about the difficulties they are facing in the domestic market, First, because workers who are aware of unemployment levels and the forms and conditions with which they are hiring, and above all, because the problem of the pandemic is far from being resolved - at least this year and early next year it will not happen. -, is that while they need to work they could be chosen to wait.

    Another important fact about unemployment. According to a BBVA study on formal employment, it is estimated that during the months of March and April of 2020 There are 686 thousand lost jobs, figure that could increase to 1 million 500 thousand, as a consequence of the economic measures adopted by the government, same that have not been able to reverse the paralysis and the economic slowdown. Also, it is mentioned that in the field of formal work they have been lost 494 thousand jobs in the first four months of the year, representing a setback of at least two years in the generation of formal jobs, and that in a tendency way, the loss of jobs in a sectorial way could be exacerbated, as has happened with negative growth in the construction industry in recent years. 15 months.[63]

    1. 5. Impacts on wages during the pandemic in Mexico

    Mexican workers have seen their wages deteriorate in a tendency way for at least the last four decades, which is what is going on in the neoliberal phase and it is understood that through the so-called labor flexibility it was that the nominal salary grew at very low rates - in the 3 and the 5 annual percent- so that as a labor strategy the Mexican State could offer a cheap and productive labor force worldwide, reducing one of the most important operating costs in the value chain, directly benefiting capitalists.

    However, in Mexico, product of the pandemic by Covid-19, said wage deterioration was accentuated in a few months; major construction contractor companies, from the automotive industry, of electronics, trade and tourism, have reduced in fact 25% of workers wages,[64] which is causing an intersectoral dispute between workers to maintain employment even at the cost of accepting worse wage and working conditions.

    For this reason, the indicator that allows you to observe the true behavior is that of the real wage is important for the working class, that historically finds its maximum level in the year of 1976, to then fall precipitously in a trend as we can see in the following graph. If we put the year of 1976 equal to 100, We can say that the existing gap corresponds to the level of impoverishment in the purchasing power of wages and, therefore in living standards and consumption of goods workers wages.

    In consecuense, During the neoliberal phase, the Mexican working class has suffered a regressive wage policy that has had a consequence, especially in recent years. 15 years a process of contraction in salary levels as can be seen in the following graph, for the year 2005 workers with an income greater than 0 And till 3 Minimum wages were 23 million 718 thousand, for the first quarter of 2020 increased 73%, i.e., happened to 40 million 928 thousand employees; on the other hand, workers with an income greater than 3 Minimum wages in the 2005 they were 12 million 987 thousand, to reach the figure of 5 million 250 one thousand in the first quarter of 2020, which represented a fall of the 60%.

    For the above we can say, that there is a process of contraction and compaction of the salary downward in at least the last fifteen years of neoliberalism, which is pushing large segments of wage earners who had incomes greater than 3 minimum wages towards the first two levels of income ranging from 1 and 2 minimum wages. This represents without a doubt for the working class a significant loss of their purchasing power and consequently see their expectations of access to a better level and quality of life reduced., which will cause an increase in misery and, clear while noting that this is happening in the formal economy.

    Although in recent years the nominal minimum wage has increased 16% passing of $102 daily pesos to $123 weights, we see that in return those workers who had levels above the 3 minimum wages have decreased between 1 and 3 minimum wages, resulting in impoverishment when observing a loss in their income level, wage, of life and purchasing power of wages. About, in the coming days we will release the research report of the UNAM Multidisciplinary Analysis Center on the minimum wage and its purchasing power.

    Only during the month of April 2020, according to INEGI, Were registered 12 millions of workers who stopped having income, largely due to the paralysis that is taking place in the Mexican economy,[65] surely this estimate made by INEGI by telephone involves many workers who work in the field of the informal economy, because the data they give in the National Occupation and Employment Survey regarding workers who do not receive income is 2 million 908 thousand 620 workers[66].

    1. 5.1. The work time required in Mexico during the pandemic

    Workers to try to level their quality of life, have had to increase the time to work, exceeding 8 hours of duration of a work day that by law is established, reason why the working days of 12 Or until 16 hours per day, only in 1988 They already existed 2 million 336 thousand 316 workers who worked more than 48 hours per week, for the 2019 the figure reached 15 million 451 thousand 507 workers, which represents an accumulated growth rate of 561%, i.e., during the neoliberal phase the mexican government has brutalized the job market.

    For the first quarter of 2020, there is a decrease in the number of workers who have had to work more than 48 hours per week, and it is due largely to the increase in unemployment and as a result of the implementation of the so-called "Telework" or work at home, which actually involves exceeding by far the barrier of 48 hours per week, because the worker daily to comply with labor productivity standards imposes work hours that without impairment extend to 16 hours a day, with great savings in production costs for entrepreneurs.

    1. Conclusions

    Could we go back to the new normal?

    It is important to emphasize that the way the working class is organized to face the collapse of labor markets as a result of the social and material conditions to which it has been subjected, it is a real objective achievement of the capitalists and the State.

    Trying to talk about a "new normal" in the face of what has been experienced with the pandemic by Covid-19 means reestablishing in another way in favor of surplus value all the circuits on relations of domination, exploitation, poverty, unemployment, precarious work, reason why we would be before the attempt to implement a proposal to survive life very similar to the previous capitalist normality.

    Therefore, we make two inferences that would be on the horizon of the medium and long-term trend analysis of the exploitation system as the basis of capitalism.

    The first inference. It would achieve long-range structural reasoning, within the class struggle, on the dispute between the main antagonistic classes of capitalism. I.e., between capitalists –owners of the means of production– and salaried workers –owners of their labor force–, which would define the nature and development of spaces for capital accumulation in the midst of a trend crisis fueled by the health pandemic by Covid-19. This redefinition transgresses directly into the new configuration of labor markets at two levels; first, based on the exacerbation in the processes of exploitation of the labor force to increase the obtaining of surplus value, and the second, from the incidence of social movements or labor union associations that will seek to improve the living and working conditions of workers. This vision comes from the Critique of Political Economy, which is linked to a specific type of space with characteristics under an objective that in historical terms will have far-reaching implications in the definition of capitalist society, in other words, from these circumstances the profile will be produced in which the so-called capital accumulation will be formalized and the sign under which the way in which the new basis of individuality will be established will be established and therefore the link in which as a society we conceive the ways in which we relate, freedom and defense for life.

    The second inference. Facing the trend crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic, The above requires the production of a political discourse that has been socially generalized and embodied in various political forces that would seek to resolve the failures in capitalism by placing it as a problem of a moral economic nature., i.e., It tries to exercise an honesty judgment to question corruption as a generator of marginalization on social welfare and not as a product of the exploitation and precariousness of work that is expressed in low wages., precariousness, dispossession, and the destruction of the environment, inhibiting the forms of access promoted from public policies by the State, reason why they transfer the problem of poverty and marginalization to the field of entrepreneurship, in which individuals from access to a certain type of opportunities will be able to access a totally anachronistic type of social welfare.

    Thus, the capitalist system will continue to demand social relations of production that reproduce a mass of individuals mediated by a consumption of goods that will be the mirror of their lives, first since this individual consumes his body and brain in the cycle of capitalist production to value and then by consuming goods that shape the way of life (the way he develops his life outside the sphere of production) of workers reproducing their lives as a workforce. In other words, in capitalism, any change to level out the trend fall in the average rate of profit implies accentuating the low quality of life of the working class and with it what it can consume and which will be of less and less quality to seek to reproduce its workforce, given the unequal distribution of social wealth. Thus, livelihoods for the consumption of the working class are limited, same that will assume the consumption of goods harmful to their health and the General Law of Capitalist Accumulation enunciated by Marx can be reasoned. "This law determines an accumulation of misery equivalent to the accumulation of capital. So what in one pole is accumulation of wealth is, on the opposite pole, that is, in the class that creates its own product as capital, accumulation of misery, of work torments, of slavery, of despotism and ignorance and moral degradation ".[67] We can establish as corollary of said law the following hypothesis: In the Economic-Social formations dominated by the Capitalist Mode of Production, an increase in the accumulation of value will correspond to a decrease that is trend-wise equivalent, of the organic capacities and the mental capacities of the human group that carries out the production. So a symbiotic equation is established: The increase in Goodwill that is required to try to level the average rate of profit will tend to mean the equivalent of the deterioration of health resulting from the impoverishment of the working class..

    In the face of the crisis in the matrix of Fordism-Keynesianism, the reconfiguration of the Latin American world of work was imperative, which dialectically presupposes a process towards the categorical transformation of the proletariat and therefore a structural change in the salaried work, producing the update of the concept of exploitation within the implementation of new labor exploitation standards based on flexibility, resignifying the axis of valorization from the planning of the work that has been based on intensive work as a source of surplus value, establishing a transhistorical vision of work and the work process. However, This hegemonic vision of the forms of organization of the workforce and before the turning points that are being observed with the pandemic by the Covid-19 are exhausted, we are in a moment of historical transformation of salaried work, which will be marked by the processes of capital accumulation that intrinsically requires wage labor on three levels fundamentally; 1) in the value preservation process; 2) in the transfer of value and 3) in generating new use values. And that presupposes that previously a specific set of material wealth has been accumulated, directed to production by capitalist diligence., i.e., for the readjustment of the state legal order through laws such as decrees, reforms, rules, codes, which are the synthesis and vision of the class in power, same that will be administered bureaucratically by the political class from the State institutions and that will necessarily imply new labor reforms, which violated the right to organize of workers in at least the following elements: to) Non-collective contracts individualize rights, conditioning freedom of association; b) It prevents the organization within companies and the distribution of propaganda for organizational purposes, manipulating the regulation of statutes; c) Neutralizes the possibility of forming organizations that represent workers and are different from the unions allowed; d) Stop the demands that seek to improve working and salary conditions, whether direct or indirect; e) Contains the possibility of a strike.

    Thus, we can say that the precariousness of the world of work appears as a direct consequence of the decadent capitalist modernity immersed in the process of capital appreciation, i.e., is one of the dimensions of capital metabolism, that goes from predation to the environment, to the production of new use values ​​that call into question the possibility of a life project based on life itself, i.e., subsuming the use value as an apparently natural form to the exchange value.

    We can also say that the intrinsic tendency of capital to expand the appreciation of value, for commodifying everything in its path, for extending their domination and for appropriating live labor, will always find resistance to use value to be dissolved, by opting for the world of life. It is a conflict that in Latin America occurs daily on an exceptional basis by placing dykes on capital, expressing itself as a strange modernity where the exchange value will find problems to realize, as there is a permanent resistance of use value to be subsumed by capital, i.e., the worlds of agrarian life, community socialities, the ways of understanding life, the ways of understanding time, the sacred relationship with nature are elements that capital has tried to deny but which has not been absolutely achieved and therefore represents the real utopia for the liberation of life.

     

    1. ANNEXED

    Federal labor law (LFT) in the TITLE SECOND CHAPTER III. In relation to the suspension of the effects of labor relations, in your article 42. They are causes of temporary suspension of the obligations to provide the service and pay the salary., without responsibility for the worker and the employer.

    1. Contagious worker disease;
    2. Temporary disability caused by an accident or illness that does not constitute a work risk;

    And in Article 43.-The suspension will take effect:

    In the cases of sections I and II of the previous article, from the date the employer becomes aware of the contagious disease or of the incapacity for work, until the end of the period set by the Mexican Social Security Institute or earlier if the incapacity for work disappears, without the suspension being able to exceed the term established in the Social Security Law for the treatment of illnesses that are not the consequence of a work risk.[68]

    In TITLE FOUR. Rights and Obligations of workers and employers. Chapter 1.Obligations of employers.

    Article 132.- They are obligations of the bosses:

    I.- Comply with the provisions of the labor regulations applicable to your companies or establishments;

    III.- Timely provide workers with supplies, instruments and materials necessary for the execution of the work, having to give them of good quality, in good condition and replace them as soon as they are no longer efficient, as long as they have not committed to using their own tool. The employer may not demand any compensation for the natural wear suffered by the tools, instruments and work materials;

    XV.- Provide training and education to your workers, in terms of Chapter III Bis of this Title.

    XVI.- Install, in accordance with the principles of safety and hygiene, the factories, workshops, offices and other places where work must be carried out, to prevent work risks and harm to the worker, as well as taking the necessary measures to prevent pollutants from exceeding the maximum allowed in the regulations and instructions issued by the competent authorities.. For this efects, must modify, in your case, the facilities in the terms indicated by the authorities themselves;

    XVII.- Comply with the safety and hygiene provisions established by laws and regulations to prevent accidents and illnesses in the workplace and, usually, in the places where the work must be carried out; and, have available at all times the medicines and essential healing materials indicated in the instructions issued, for timely and effective first aid; having to give, of course, notice to the competent authority of each accident that occurs;

    XVIII.- Visibly fix and spread in places where work is provided, the provisions leading to the safety and hygiene regulations and instructions;

    XIX.- Provide their workers with prophylactic medications determined by the health authority in places where there are tropical or endemic diseases., or when there is a danger of an epidemic;

    XXIV.- Allow the inspection and surveillance that the labor authorities carry out in your establishment to ensure compliance with labor standards and give them the reports that are essential for this purpose, when requested. Employers may require inspectors or commissioners to show them their credentials and disclose any instructions they have.;

     

     

     

    – – – – – – – – – – – – –

    [1] Communist Party Manifesto.

    [2] BBC NEWS WORLD. The economy and the coronavirus: the winning businesses and the surprising losers during the pandemic. 14 May of 2020. In Internet: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-52647431

    [3] Op Cit.

    [4] Op Cit.

    [5] Op Cit.

    [6] http://poblacion.population.city/world/

    [7] BBC NEWS WORLD. Coronavirus: the map showing the number of infected and dead in the world by covid-19. 29 June of the 2020. In Internet: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-51705060

    [8] BBC. Coronavirus: Who is making money from the pandemic? On the internet: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-51710459

    [9] BBC NEWS WORLD. The economy and the coronavirus: the winning businesses and the surprising losers during the pandemic. 14 May of 2020. In Internet: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-52647431

    [10] BBC. Coronavirus: how the Covid-19 crisis benefits Jeff Bezos and causes billionaires losses to 500 richest in the world. In Internet: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-52304139

    [11] SPUTNIK. These are the 25 wealthiest families around the world. On the internet: https://mundo.sputniknews.com/economia/201908111088341685-estas-son-las-25-familias-mas-ricas-de-todo-el-mundo/

    [12] Op Cit.

    [13] SPUTNIK. The 2000 richest people in the world own more than half of humanity. 21 in January of 2020. In Internet: https://mundo.sputniknews.com/sociedad/202001211090192259-las-2000-personas-mas-ricas-del-mundo-poseen-mas-que-la-mitad-de-la-humanidad/

    [14] SPUTNIK. These are the 25 richest families in the world. 1 of August 2019. In Internet: https://mundo.sputniknews.com/economia/201908111088341685-estas-son-las-25-familias-mas-ricas-de-todo-el-mundo/

    [15] SPUTNIK. Humanity can face a famine of biblical magnitudes. 26 April of 2020. In Internet: https://mundo.sputniknews.com/radio_siete_dias/202004261091238409-la-humanidad-puede-afrontar-una-hambruna-de-magnitudes-biblicas/

    [16] Op Cit.

    [17] SPUTNIK. Pandemic can double the number of people affected by acute hunger. 21 April of the 2020. In Internet: https://mundo.sputniknews.com/sociedad/202004211091178822-la-pandemia-puede-duplicar-el-numero-de-afectados-por-hambre-aguda/

    [18] The southern tip of Patagonia, Raúl Zibechi, A bomb about to explode: the pandemic in the urban peripheries of Latin America, 15 April of 2020. In Internet: https://www.elextremosur.com/nota/23869-una-bomba-a-punto-de-estallar-la-pandemia-en-las-periferias-urbanas-de-america-latina/

    [19] Political Animal. With few hospital beds and low proportion of doctors Mexico faces the Covid-19. 18 March of 2020. In Internet: https://www.animalpolitico.com/2020/03/pocas-camas-hospital-baja-proporcion-medicos-enfrentaria-mexico-covid-19/

    [20] CONAPO. Socio-demographic information relevant during the COVID health contingency 19. 4 may of 2020.

    On the internet: https://www.gob.mx/conapo/documentos/informacion-sociodemografica-relevante-durante-la-contingencia-sanitaria-covid-19?idiom=es

    [21] SPUTNIK. A bomb on the verge of exploding the pandemic in the urban peripheries of Latin America. On the internet: https://mundo.sputniknews.com/firmas/202004151091121339-una-bomba-a-punto-de-estallar-la-pandemia-en-las-periferias-urbanas-de-america-latina/

    [22] ILO. Responses of developing countries on social protection to COVID-19: Strengthening resilience by creating universal social protection. In Internet: HTTPS://www.ilo.org/secsoc/information-resources/publications-and-tools/Brochures/WCMS_744719/lang–es/index.htm

    [23] CIEP. The contraction of per capita spending on health: 2010 – 2020. In Internet: https://ciep.mx/la-contraccion-del-gasto-per-capita-en-salud-2010-2020/

    [24] CONAPO. Relevant sociodemographic information during the COVID health contingency 19. 4 may of 2020. On the internet: https://www.gob.mx/conapo/documentos/informacion-sociodemografica-relevante-durante-la-contingencia-sanitaria-covid-19?idiom=es

    [25] The day, Raise the figure to 65 of infected personnel in Jalisco. 14 may of 2020. On the internet:

    https://www.jornada.com.mx/2020/05/14/estados/027n4est

    [26] Ángeles Cruz Martínez, The day newspaper, Thursday 14 may of 2020, p. 4 On the internet: https://www.jornada.com.mx/2020/05/14/politica/004n2pol

    [27] The day, Gustavo Leal, Specifications and demands of health professionals, 16 May of 2020. On the internet: https://www.jornada.com.mx/2020/05/16/opinion/019a1pol

    [28] INFOBAE. IMSS: Everything you need to know about the coronavirus medical staff bonus. 24 April of 2020. On the internet:

    https://www.infobae.com/america/mexico/2020/04/24/imss-todo-lo-que-debes-saber-sobre-el-bono-para-personal-medico-que-lucha-contra-el-coronavirus/

    [29] The monthly salary does not consider social benefits, or any kind of encouragement.

    [30] IMSS, SNTSS. Collective labor agreement, 2019-2021.

    [31] Process. AMLO guarantees wage increase above inflation for 2020. 14 November of 2019. In Internet: https://www.proceso.com.mx/606786/amlo-garantiza-aumento-salarial-por-encima-de-la-inflacion-para-2020

    [32]The International Council of Nurses as mentioned in its portal is a federation of International Nurses representing the more than 20 millions of nurses worldwide. Web site: https://www.icn.ch/es

    [33] International Council of Nurses. More than 600 nurses have died of Covid-19 worldwide. 3 of June of 2020. In Internet: https://www.icn.ch/es/noticias/mas-de-600-enfermeras-han-fallecido-por-el-covid-19-en-todo-el-mundo

    [34] The Economist. More than 46,000 Health workers in Mexico have been infected with Covid-19. 2 July of 2020. In Internet: ps://www.eleconomista.com.mx/politica/Mas-de-46000-trabajadores-de-la-salud-en-Mexico-have-been-infected-by-Covid-19-20200702-0133.html

    [35] The day. The virus has already affected 20 thousand 217 health workers; Have they died 271. 3 June of the 2020. In Internet: https://www.jornada.com.mx/2020/06/03/politica/003n3pol

    [36] Televisa News. From 271 health sector workers killed by Covid-19. 2 June of 2020. In Internet: https://noticieros.televisa.com/ultimas-noticias/van-271-trabajadores-de-salud-muertos-por-covid-19/

    [37] Health Secretary. Everything about the Covid-19. 11 July of 2020. In Internet: https://coronavirus.gob.mx/datos/

    [38] Ahmed, Azam, Hidden figures: Mexico disregards wave of deaths in the capital "in New York Times, 08 of May 2020, consulted in https://www.nytimes.com/es/2020/05/08/espanol/america-latina/mexico-coronavirus.html, consulted the day 20 of May 2020.

    [39] Coronavirus in Mexico: This is what it costs to serve a patient with COVID 19 "in Infobae, 15 of May 2020, consulted in https://www.infobae.com/america/mexico/2020/05/15/coronavirus-en-mexico-esto-es-lo-que-cuesta-atender-a-un-paciente-con-covid-19/ the day 19 of May 2020.

    [40] Mendoza Escamilla, Viridiana, "It costs more than 280,000 pesos serving Covid-19 in private hospitals ”in Forbes Mexico, 15 of April 2020, consulted in https://www.forbes.com.mx/economia-cuesta-covid-19-hospitales-privados-coronavirus/ the day 19 of April 2020.

    [41]Ahmed, Azam, On. Cit.

    [42] 5° Element, Reveals 911 three times more out-of-hospital deaths from Covid-19 in CDMX, 16 of June of 2020. On the internet: https://quintoelab.org/project/911-muertes-llamadas-covid-coronavirus-mexico-cuatro-veces-mas

    [43] Millennium. López-Gatell responds to international press on death toll from covid-19: “Lack of information rigor”. 8 may of 2020. On the internet: https://www.milenio.com/politica/coronavirus-gatell-responde-nyt-numero-muertos-mexico

    [44] INFOBAE. In one week Mexico added 2217 Covid-19 deaths. 25 may of 2020. On the internet: https://www.infobae.com/america/mexico/2020/05/25/en-una-semana-mexico-sumo-2217-muertes-por-covid-19/

    [45] Health Secretary, Covid-19. On the internet: https://coronavirus.gob.mx/datos/

    [46] https://es.statista.com/estadisticas/1095779/numero-de-muertes-causadas-por-el-coronavirus-de-wuhan-por-pais/

    [47] PROCESS, Jaime Bonilla bothers the ex officio leak that prohibits revealing death statistics, 6 of June of 2020. On the internet: https://www.proceso.com.mx/633328/molesta-a-jaime-bonilla-la-filtracion-de-oficio-que-prohibe-revelar-estadisticas-de-muertes

    [48] Treaty between Mexico, United States and Canada (T-MEC). Chapter 23. Labor. Final version presented to the Senate of the Republic on 30 May of 2019.

    [49] Journal of the Sun of Guanajuato. PAG. 3 morning edition of 29 of May.

    [50] https://www.jornada.com.mx/ultimas/estados/2020/05/08/han-muerto-en-ciudad-juarez-104-obreros-de-maquiladoras-7063.html

    [51] https://yociudadano.com.mx/noticias/exigen-esclarecer-cifra-de-muertes-y-contagios-por-covid-19-en-maquiladoras/
    https://www.jornada.com.mx/ultimas/estados/2020/05/08/han-muerto-en-ciudad-juarez-104-obreros-de-maquiladoras-7063.html

    [52] https://diario.mx/juarez/marchan-obreros-de-21-maquilas-202005181664303.html
    https://www.animalpolitico.com/2020/05/empleados-maquiladoras-chihuahua-protestan-muertes-covid19/

    [53] https://www.jornada.com.mx/ultimas/estados/2020/05/08/han-muerto-en-ciudad-juarez-104-obreros-de-maquiladoras-7063.html

    [54] https://diario.mx/juarez/marchan-obreros-de-21-maquilas-20200518-1664303.html

    [55] The day. Pemex exceeds the 400 killed by Covid-19. 15 June of the 2020. In Internet: https://www.jornada.com.mx/ultimas/economia/2020/06/15/supera-pemex-los-400-muertos-por-covid-19-5083.html

    [56] The day. PEMEX adds 307 deceased by covid 19 in their units. 5 of June of 2020.

    On the internet: https://www.jornada.com.mx/ultimas/economia/2020/06/05/pemex-suma-307-fallecidos-por-covid-19-en-sus-unidades-1281.html

    [57] EMEEQUIS. Six acquaintances of mine have already passed away. Oil tankers without backup against Covid. 4 of June of 2020. In Internet:

    https://www.m-x.com.mx/al-dia/seis-conocidos-mios-ya-fallecieron-petroleros-sin-respaldo-ante-el-covid

    [58] The day. They have died of coronavirus 94 cleaning service workers. 5 June of the 2020. In Internet: https://www.jornada.com.mx/2020/06/05/capital/028n1cap

    [59] Solidarity network with workers at risk. In Internet: https://www.facebook.com/REDSTrabajadorxsenRiesgo/?tn-str=k*F

    [60] ILO, COVID-19: Social protection coverage. 14 may of 2020.

    On the internet: HTTPS://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_744713/lang–es/index.htm

    [61] Op Cit.

    [62] High level. 12 Millions of Mexicans ran out of income in April. INEGI. 1 of June of 2020. In Internet: https://www.altonivel.com.mx/economia/12-millones-de-mexicanos-se-quedaron-sin-ingresos-en-abril-inegi/.

    [63] BBVA. Formal employment collapses in April, two years of job creation are lost. 13 may of 2020. In Internet: https://www.bbvaresearch.com/publicaciones/mexico-empleo-formal-se-derrumba-en-abril-se-pierden-dos-anos-de-creacion-de-empleos/

    [64] HTTPS://www.ilo.org/global/statistics-and-databases/lang–es/index.htm

    [65] High level. 12 Millions of Mexicans ran out of income in April. INEGI. 1 June 2020 On the internet: https://www.altonivel.com.mx/economia/12-millones-de-mexicanos-se-quedaron-sin-ingresos-en-abril-inegi/

    [66] INEGI. National occupation and employment survey. January-March 2020.

    [67] Marx, Capital, Tomo I, p. 547.

    [68] Federal Labor Law in Mexico, last reform published on 2 July of 2019. On the internet: http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/125_020719.pdf

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